Aging science/ longevity science
Many of us will benefit from the emerging 22 century of real major advanced technology .humans can do better than they did in 19 century, there’s more we can do for humanity.
There’s a thing that happens to everybody called Aging, and it’s 90% of all the sickness and suffering in the world but no one seems to care about it. Drs said it’s normal, you are getting old and should be getting sick. We fought against cancer, heart diseases, Viruses, and epidemics, then what about aging? Aging is beginning to be accessed as a medical condition recently and we can all do this to be able to live strong into 100s of years. We used to think that antioxidants are the cure for aging, but researchers said it’s been very unsuccessful. There’s much more going on with the free radical damage and we need to tap into our body’s natural defenses against aging.
3 Main Body Defenses :
MTOR -Response to fasting
Ampk -Response to low energy and lack of sugar, keeping your sugar low without fainting.
Sirtuins -response to all things that we do, the adversity, the exercise, and the fasting. They fight harder to keep our bodies safe, protected, healthier, and long-lived. Dr. David believed that the main thing they are doing to make us live longer is controlling epigenomes, the epigenome is a structure that wraps up DNA. This sirtuin that defends us is called silent information regulators. SIR
Analysis of Epigenome By Dr. David
Here’s the analogy DNA as digital information on a compact disc. Those of us who are old enough know what that is. For the youngsters, this is what we used to store 20 songs on. It was great technology, that’s your genome, the digital information. The epigenome is the reader. It can read different songs depending on different parts of the body in different cell types. But what I believe is causing aging is the skipping of those songs, the skipping of the reader. And what makes songs skip? Scratches. So aging is essentially scratching on a compact disc that makes the music skip and eventually cells, by reading the wrong genes, skipping the bad genes, lose their ability to fight against the disease. They lose their function. We get dementia, we get heart disease, we get cancer, we get frailty, that is aging. So with this new theory of what I call the Information Theory of Aging, we can perhaps test this by testing if epigenetic changes cause aging. And if that’s true, is it possible to reset these structures back to being young? Is there a backup copy of the epigenome? In other words, can you polish that CD and get back the original music of our youth? Before I go on I want to point out something important in this structure. It’s not just the proteins that wrap up the DNA but the modifications that are on the DNA itself. Chemical additions are called methyl, Methyls are carbons with three hydrogens. They’re very simple. And cells add them as we’re developing in the womb to say, all right, that cell that comes from stem cells should be a neuron for 80, 90, 100 years in the brain. And this one should be a skin cell. These marks, called methyls, dictate the production of 26 billion cells. Many of them have different functions in the body, even though they have the same set of instructions encoded in the DNA. What’s been found since 2013, Steven Horvath and his colleagues discovered that by reading the changes over time of this DNA, methylation marks on the DNA that are attached to the letter C in the DNA, not the A, T, or G, you can estimate somebody’s biological age, because it’s reproducible. We’re all aging due to the same mechanisms and there’s a pattern that occurs from conception very rapidly until we’re born and then slows down, and then is linear throughout our lifespan. We can measure that clock. I can take your blood, I can take your skin, any part of your body, and I can run that through a DNA sequencer to measure the methylation, there are thousands of them. And putting that into a machine learning-derived algorithm, I can tell you your actual real age, not your chronological age. I mean, birthdays? Who cares? The number of times the Earth went around the Sun. That’s not your real age. What your real age is, are these changes to the epigenome, that determine how old you really are. So the question is if we tweak the epigenome if we scratch that CD if I’m right about the Information theory of Aging, what do we get? We’ll get accelerated aging. This is a mouse. That’s the control in my lab. So we tweak this mouse in every other way, except scratch its CD. At the same time, we took a sibling born at the same time, and we for three weeks accelerated the scratches on the CD. We disrupted its epigenome and the cells started to lose their identity. The mouse didn’t feel it. It’s like getting an X-ray, you don’t feel that but what happened 10 months later as we got an old mouse. This isn’t just a mouse that looks old. This mouse is 50% older than its sibling, even though it’s genetically identical. These are twins born at the same time. One is old and one is not. We can drive aging as fast as we want forwards. Then the question is if you can give something, can you take it away? And if I’m right, the answer is yes. First of all, let me show you a minor tweak to age reversal. We found these sirtuins can defend against aging, but they can also reverse aspects if we activate them either giving them molecules from the plant world, that plants produce when they want to slow down their aging process and survive. We call this xenohormesis. We have drugs that have been in development. We have more that are coming. We have one, in particular, that’s of interest and it’s called NAD booster. NAD is fuel for the sirtuins, whereas resveratrol is the accelerator pedal. So giving the fuel to these mice, I’ll show you what happens. One of these mice has been on the sirtuin-activating molecule called NMN: Nicotinamide Mono Nucleotide. Hopefully, you can guess which of them has been rejuvenated from an old state. These are really old mice. They are almost two years of age, and only one of them has been drinking NMN in the water. If you pick the mouse on the right, you’d be wrong. It’s the mouse on the left, obviously.
And we published in the Journal Cell in 2018 that this is possible, to rejuvenate the cardiovascular system of mice and make it younger, through sirtuins. We know it works for these sirtuins because, if we delete those genes, you don’t get this effect on these mice here. But that was just the beginning, that’s 2018. We’re now in a world where our technology makes this pale by comparison. We now have the ability to reset the age of an entire animal, leading to one day being able to reset the entire age of our bodies. What did we do? We really stood on the shoulders of a scientist, Shinya Yamanaka, who won the Nobel Prize in 2016 for discovering a set of embryonic genes that could take an adult skin cell from any of you and turn it into a pluripotent stem cell that could be made into any other type of tissue, and we can do that in the lab. High school students can do this by putting in the six Yamanaka genes.
Now we found that if you put in a subset of three of them Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 short for OSK, we could take the age of the body of a mouse backward, but not so far that it would become a stem cell or a tumor. This was published in December 2020. It made the cover of Nature Magazine, and the title of the magazine was Turning Back Time. This is one of the pieces of data from that paper. We did three things. The first was to damage an optic nerve in a mouse, and you can see on the top image that the crushed nerve is dying.
That orange stain should extend all the way to the brain on the left. But in the reprogrammed eye where we injected those three genes and turn them on for three weeks, we could make those neurons grow back. We measured those neurons and they were literally half the age that they were three weeks ago. And young nerves, as you might know, grow back. Adult nerves do not. So this was the first indication that we were on the right track. We also could see that those structures, the epigenome, those scratches on the CD, went away.
We can also grow human tissue in the lab. We don’t know yet if this works in humans, but we can model it in the dish. These human pluripotent stem cells have been engineered into little mini-brains. On the left of this image, you can see these are little organoids. These are quite similar to human brains. They have electrical activity, and on the right are the electrodes that we put the brains on. We can measure that. We think they dream. They have thoughts, and we can also age them using our technology of disrupting the epigenome.
And now we’ve shown that if you reset the age of those little brains, they get their ability to think again. The electrical activity comes back. Does this mean one day if we reverse the age of the brain, you’ll get your memory back? Possibly. We’ve done this now in old mice. We can rejuvenate their brains, take their brains back to half their age, and they get their ability to learn again. So you might say, well, sounds great, but how long is this going to be before we have it? And my hope is that we’re at a turning point in human history as important as flight and Silicon Valley and energy and crypto. The 22nd century is going to be about biology and the ability to control your age and the rate of aging and slow down not just body aging and heart aging, but even brain aging. These tools and age reversal tools that are just coming along will radically change the arc of our lives in a way that we can barely even imagine where we can reset our age by a couple of years, which is now being published, that’s been done by Greg Fahy and colleagues. If we do that every year, even just set your age back one year every year, what happens? Things then get really interesting. And that’s the world that we have to stay alive to be able to witness. And if we all do the right things, we will witness that. (Australian biologist/geneticist who is a professor of genetics and co-director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for Biology of Aging Research at Harvard Medical School)
Steps To Longevity And Anti-Aging
Skip a meal or two which boosts up our longevity genes and they take care of us. We know that if we boost the longevity genes in animals they live longer.
They’re healthier, they stay fitter for longer and they die much quicker at the end of life you know everybody would know that in human history, fasting is considered one of the healthiest things you can do and there’s so much evidence that it’s really incontrovertible that skipping meals is not only good for you but will make you live longer. There are many ways, of course, to skip meals because there are all different types of intermittent fasting. Modern life has been too comfortable and quite revolutionary when we hear about eating less or reducing how often we eat, As every meal is a feast, and an average person can’t survive without eating breakfast and lunch. Intermittent fasting is now the most popular diet in the world. hopefully, it’s not a fad because this is probably the most effective diet that’s ever been promoted on the planet even for children. Not suggesting malnutrition or starvation by any means but having three meals a day plus snacks is a calorie overload for even children in most cases. Think of intermittent fasting as different from time-restricted eating for some people, intermittent fasting is one meal a day, for some people, it’s 16 hours without eating and eight hours a day where you consume food then you also have time-restricted eating. Very difficult to not be able to stock up our pantries and fridges to eat 3 full meals a day and in-between snacks when one can afford it hence truly it takes discipline to stay fit and healthy. Personally, this intermittent fasting and lifestyle helped me many years back to repair and heal my damaged cells as our system is created to function this way. I am so excited about the future, Researchers are working tirelessly to decode and solve the root problems pertaining to health, aging, and longevity And I will do my known possible practice to hang in there!
An Entrepreneur , B.A Foreign Languages ,PGD Health and Social care Management ,American Caregiver Association (Member) ACA Certified, Leadership and Management.